www.sron.nl/122-hifi2/hifi.html

18-02-2015
financial-support-for-museum-and-observatory-sonnenborgh

Financial support for museum and observatory Sonnenborgh

Sonnenborgh – museum & observatory receives a one time financial injection for a healthy future. The municipality of Utrecht, University of Utrecht, K.F. Hein Fonds Monumenten and the Stichting Vrienden van Sonnenborgh have decided this. The support amounts to almost €400.000.         Read more (in dutch)
29-01-2015
millions-for-intermediate-black-holes-and-ground-breaking-redshift-machine

Millions for intermediate black holes and revolutionary redshift instrument

The European Research Council has awarded SRON researchers Jochem Baselmans (2,4 million euros) and Peter Jonker (2 million euros) prestigious research grants. Jonker will chase intermediate-mass black holes to find out if they really exist. Baselmans will develop a ground-breaking instrument to measure the redshift of so called submillimeter galaxies, distant galaxies that are responsible for the cosmic infrared background radiation.         More
20-01-2015
over-2-3-million-for-space-cameras

Over 2.3 million for space cameras

The province of Groningen sets a grant of over 2.3 million euros available to space research institute SRON. With this money SRON, together with companies from the region, develops new products based on the latest space research technologies. Such as parts of cameras that go along with future space missions of the European Space Agency (ESA) and cameras that will be used in SMEs and in industry.         More
14-01-2015
rug-astron-and-sron-will-develop-master-advanced-instrumentation

RUG, ASTRON and SRON will develop master Advanced Instrumentation

The University of Groningen (RUG) will start with a master 'Advanced Instrumentation' from the year 2016/2017. The master is developed together with NWO research institutes ASTRON and SRON.           More
10-12-2014
15-year-old-xmm-newton-can-t-seem-to-stop

15 year old XMM-Newton still going strong

XMM-Newton (ESA) is the most sensitive X-Ray observatory ever launched into space. His successor ASTRO-H is almost ready, but the old giant can't seem to stop. Today, 10 December 2014, XMM celebrates his 15th birthday, and he will continue to observe pulsars, clusters of galaxies and supermassive black holes. Onboard are the Dutch reflection grating spectrometers. Succes story of extremely reliable space technology.        Read more (in dutch)

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Summary

HIFI's superb spectral resolution coupled with its ability to observe thousands of molecular, atomic and ionic lines at submillimeter wavelengths make it the instrument of choice to address many of the key  questions in modern astrophysics related to the cyclic interaction of stars and the interstellar medium:
  1. HIFI will probe the physics, kinematics and energetics of star forming regions through their cooling lines, including H2O, the major coolant.
  2. HIFI will survey the molecular inventory of such diverse regions as shocked molecular clouds, dense Photon-Dominated Regions (PDRs), diffuse atomic clouds, Hot Cores and proto-planetary disks around newly formed stars, winds from dying stars and toroids interacting with AGN engines.
  3. HIFI is uniquely suited to search for low-lying ro-vibrational transitions of complex species such as PAHs and, thus, to investigate the origin and evolution of the molecular universe.
  4. HIFI can provide the out-gassing rate of comets through H2O rotational lines and determine the vertical distribution of H2O in the giant planets and on Mars.
  5. HIFI can measure the mass-loss history of stars which, rather than nuclear burning, regulates stellar evolution after the main sequence, and dominates the gas and dust mass balance of the ISM.
  6. HIFI will measure the FIR line spectrum of nearby galaxies as templates for distant, possibly primordial galaxies.

The main reason to build HIFI was because the above sketched science cannot be done from the ground, since atmospheric water lines block all radiation coming from space. On the right plots are given of the atmospheric transmission.

HIFI is optimised to address the astronomical key questions given above. All of these require high spectral resolving powers and sensitivity. Combining the high spectral resolving power of the radio heterodyne technique with quantum-noise limited detection from superconductor physics and state-of-the-art microwave technology, has made it possible to develop an instrument with a continuous frequency coverage from 480 to 1250 GHz in five bands, plus a sixth band providing coverage for 1410-1910 GHz at an unrivalled spectral resolution and ultimate sensitivity. This instrument is able to perform rapid and complecte spectral line surveys with resolving powers from 103 up to 107 (300 - 0.03 km/s) and deep line observations.

HIFI Band

1

2

3

4

5

6

Coverage (GHz)

480-
640

640-
800

800-
960

960-
1120

1120-
1250

1410-
1910

Half Power
Beamwidth
(arcsec)

39

30

25

21

19

13

Rec. Noise
(DSB) in K
Baseline values

110

145

175

210

370

800